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Some situations that have led people to hurt themselves are:
- Being bullied or abused (emotional, physical, and/or sexual)
- Finding it difficult to express strong feelings (sadness or anger)
- Losing someone close to you, like a parent or sibling
- Intense emotional pain and loss
- Mental illness (anxiety and depression)
There are a number of ways people hurt themselves, including: cutting, burning, taking small quantities of medications or illegal drugs, scratching, biting and pinching oneself.
Your safetyIf your self-harm has reached the point where you or someone else are concerned about your physical safety, for example, blood loss or the risk of infection, seek immediate medical attention at your local GP. In an emergency, go to your local hospital's emergency department or call 000 (112 from a mobile) and request an ambulance.
Why do I self-harm?Self-harm is usually not a suicide attempt or intended to be fatal, but rather a means to cope with or feel some relief from powerful negative experiences and is often associated with strong and sustained emotions such as, guilt, depression and anxiety. People who use self-harm have usually experienced difficult times in their lives.
Hurting yourself may feel like it releases and helps deal with emotional pain or gives expression to intense negative feelings that are impossible to put into words and provides a sense of control. You may feel that self harm relieves pressure and stops overwhelming thoughts. In some people, it can be a form of self-punishment or communicate to people that you need help.
However, self-harm only provides temporary relief, and gives you no opportunity to work through your feelings. After a while you may find that you need to hurt yourself more and more to get the same relief. If this behaviour goes on, your self-harm could become self perpetuating as the only means of dealing with obstacles in your life, and ultimately life-threatening.
Alternatives to self-harmThere are alternative ways to cope, and respond differently when you start to feel like hurting yourself.
You can try the following:
- Delay the behaviour: put it off until you have spoken to someone or waited for a period of time. You might find that the desire to self-harm then passes.
- Distract yourself: go for a walk, listen to music that expresses how you feel or changes your mood or engage in a hobby you enjoy.
- Diversion: try punching a pillow or punching bag, hold ice in the crook or your elbow, or other activity that can mimic the self-harm but is safer for you.
- Relaxation: try taking a bath or shower, deep breathing or techniques such as progressive muscle relaxation until the feeling passes.
Getting help for self-harmSelf-harm can become a compulsive and dangerous activity and only ever masks the real reasons for its existence. It is not a solution to underlying issues that need to be talked about and resolved safely and in your own time. Even when people do not intend to end their lives, the consequences of this risky behaviour can be fatal. It is important to get some help from a professional. See your GP or other health professional to talk about what is happening and to discuss a management plan.Your GP may then refer you to a psychologist who specialises in self-harm and can help you to help yourself.
How do I talk about self-harm?If you are worried about how to talk to someone about the self-harm behaviour, you might start with the following:
- 'I've been feeling angry/sad/frustrated/guilty about something in my life.'
- It all started when...'
- 'Lately things have been hard and I am feeling'
If you find talking about it too overwhelming, try writing down the feelings you have been experiencing and give them to someone who can help you. You might want to share this with a trusted friend or family member first and they can support you in getting the right help for you.
You can also contact the Suicide Call Back Service on 1300 659 467. This is a free nationwide telephone support service available 24 hours a day, seven days a week and is staffed by expert counsellors. We also offer free, confidential online counselling.